Thousands of Apple Fruit variety are available today. Some of these are sports, or accidental mutation of another variety.
Delicious, Jonagold, Mclrose, MeIntosh Niagara, Winesap, Northern Spy to mention few are all sort of Apple Breeds. But before we go any further, let's concisely describe how an apple looks like from a general point of view and in most popular sort.
Apple Fruit Appearance
The apple is a pome, a round fruit that consists of firm, juicy flesh covered by a thin, tough, edible skin and surrounding a cartilaginous, seeded core. The skin colour of apples can range from dark green to yellow to bright red, or some combination of these colours. Apples that are just ripe are crisp and juicy, whereas those that are overripe attain an aromatic flavor and a slightly mealy texture.
- Good source of pectin, a soluble fiber that helps reduce blood cholesterol
- A good source of vitamin C
Thousands of varieties of apples are grown worldwide. As a result, apples are available in a seemingly endless array of colours, crispness, texture, size, sweetness, and aroma. Some of the more popular varieties in Europe especially the U.S. marketplace are the Red and Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Gala, and Rome Beauty. Others includes: Paulared, Empire, Prima, Gala, Cortland, Spartan, etc.
Distribution & botanical facts
The apple is native to Asia and eastern Europe. The earliest recorded description of apples appears in Greek literature of the 4th century B.C. The first apples cultivated in the New World were grown from seed brought by the Pilgrims. Today, the leading apple-producing nations are Russia, China, the United States, Germany, France, and Italy. In the United States, nearly half the domestic crop is grown in Washington, and New York, California, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Virginia produce for much of the rest of the domestic market.
Apples can grow virtually anywhere with a moderate climate, although some varieties are better suited to a particular region. Because fruit-bearing seasons vary by variety and region, apples are available all year. Standard-sized trees reach a height and spread of 25 feet and require 5 to 10 years to fruit. Recently, dwarf and semidwarf trees have emerged; these require as few as 2 years to bear fruit.
When selecting apples, choose those with firm flesh and tight skin that is free of bruises, soft spots, and holes. Larger apples tend to be more mealy than small ones. To ripen apples, keep them at room temperature. Apples store well for long periods refrigerated or in a cool, dry place. Sliced apples quickly turn brown on exposure to air; however, this can be prevented by dipping the fruit into acidulated water (dilute lemon juice).
As one of the most popular fruits in the United States, apples are widespread in the American cuisine. They are used in salads, alongside meats, and in pilafs, desserts, preserves, juices, cider, pies, breads, cakes, and alcoholic beverages (such as the liqueur calvados). Dried apples make tasty snacks or additions to breakfast cereal. Characteristics of flavor and texture determine the optimal varieties for each use. Crisp, crunchy, juicy, sweet or sweet-tart apples such as the Granny Smith, Fuji, Gala, or Red Delicious are best for eating. In general, firm-fleshed, tart apples such as the Golden Delicious and Rome Beauty are best for baking whole. Tart or slightly sour varieties are good for pies and applesauce.
Nutrient compositionA medium-sized fresh apple is a good source of vitamin C; however, most of the vitamin C is lost when the apple is cooked or made into juice.
- Energy (kilocalories) 81
- Water (%) 84
- Dietary fiber (grams) 4
- Fat (grams) 0
- Carbohydrate (grams) 21
- Protein (grams) 0
Minerals (in mg)
- Calcium 10
- Potassium 159
- Magnesium 7
- Phosphorus 10
Vitamins (in mg)
- Vitamin A7 RE
- Vitamin C 8
- Riboflavin 0.1
- Vitamin B6 0.1
- Folate 4 μg
All Apples need some cool winter weather, but there is an enormous range in this requirement, so varieties are available for any climate except tropical and low desert regions.
Apples are subject to attacks by organisms, but the gardener will have most trouble with coding moth other fruit-spoiling pests with the usual aphids, mites, and scales.